Do we know where the first Wrocław cemetery existed and when it was built? How many cemeteries existed in Wrocław within its current borders? How many of those which still function today are pre-war? These questions are answered in the article by Dr Marek Burak based on – sometimes verified – considerations presented in the publication Cmentarze dawnego Wrocławia published in 2007 by Marek Burak and Halina Okólska[1].


The establishment of the bishopric of Wrocław in 1000 consolidated the influence of Christianity in Silesia. From then on, parishes were successively formed and organised next to temples funded not only by princes, but also by wealthy lay people and clergy[2]. The development of the Catholic church organisation (after the schism in Christianity in the mid-11th century) in Silesia was stopped in the 1520s, when the Reformation ideas found numerous followers within the Wrocław diocese.

Reformatory thoughts found support especially in Wrocław[3]. The city council, siding with the new religion, at the same time took over the functions of the church authorities in relation to the urban commune it administered. The power of the new religion was already visible in the mid-1520s, when the municipal authorities, taking patronage over the churches of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Elizabeth, introduced Lutheran clergy there[4].

In 1555, under the provisions of the Augsburg Settlement, the princes of the German Reich were granted the right to decide on the religion of their subjects in accordance with the principle of cuius regio eius religio[5]. Its application expanded the influence of Lutheranism in German countries. However, until the end of the 16th century, no appropriate legal act was issued regulating the religious situation in Silesia, which – as a province associated with the Habsburgs, remained formally Catholic. It was not until the Emperor Rudolf II’s Letter of Majesty of 1609 that the principles of coexistence between Catholics and Protestants were determined. This regulation introduced equal religious freedom for both faiths. The document also included provisions regarding funerals and cemeteries. From then on, they were to be available for Christian burials regardless of the religion of the necropolis’ administrator. It was also allowed to arrange a new burial field in accordance with local needs[6]. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) which ended the Thirty Years’ War guaranteed Wrocław full religious freedom[7], thus validating the actual religious relations prevailing in the capital of Silesia, remaining under the Catholic rule of the Habsburg monarchy.

The Prussian period in the history of Silesia and Wrocław, which began in 1741, brought changes in the approach to sepulchral issues. At the end of the 18th century, the previously functionally connected areas of church and cemetery were separated. Newly established necropolises became specialised fields intended exclusively for burials. In the first half of the 1770s, King Frederick II of Prussia banned the burial of the dead within Prussian cities (intra muros) and ordered the necropolises of all religions to be moved outside the city walls. In Wrocław, the new rules were officially implemented by a royal rescript dated 13 December 1775[8]. Therefore, based on the need to follow the ruler’s order, it may be assumed that 1776 brought an end to the functioning of city centre church cemeteries in the capital of Lower Silesia. The ban on burials within the city limits also resulted in the imminent liquidation of most necropolises of this type.

Since the early Middle Ages, the most common place for burying the deceased residents of Wrocław were cemeteries located next to places of worship[9]. During the formation of medieval cities, the churches and their necropolises were located within the city walls[10]. The interiors of churches were traditionally reserved for the burials of princes, nobility and clergy, and over time – also of the wealthy bourgeoisie. This custom is associated with the creation of mausoleums of Silesian princes from the Piast dynasty: Henry II the Pious at the church of St. James (church of St. Vincent after the change of patron in 1530), Henry IV Probus at the collegiate church of Świętokrzyskie and at the shrine of St. Clara, where Henry III the White, Henry V the Fat and Henry VI were buried[11]. The less distinguished individuals found their final resting place in church yards, which over time turned into church cemeteries[12].

The oldest necropolis in Wrocław was probably associated with the Romanesque cathedral of St. John the Baptist (11th century) in Ostrów Tumski, located at the northern wall of the church building after the reconstruction of the church (13th-14th century). There were other areas of this type operating on the cathedral island at different times. They included the cemetery at the collegiate church of the Holy Cross and St. Bartholomew (used from the late Middle Ages until the 1730s)[13] and the burial ground next to the church of St. Peter and Paul consecrated in 1621, serving their functions probably until the 1670s[14].

The necropolis located south of the church of St. Adalbert dates back to at least the 12th century. It probably existed until the end of the 13th century[15]. North of the cemetery church of St. Barbara, St. Felix and St. Adauctus, perhaps from the second half of the 13th century, operated a burial ground where the poorer flock of the city parish of St. Elizabeth were buried – back then located outside the city walls (currently Św. Mikołaja Street)[16]. The area connected to the parish church of St. Elizabeth from the south was occupied by a necropolis established in the mid-13th century, where representatives of wealthy bourgeoisie families were buried[17]. A similar function of a burial ground for the bourgeoisie was served by the 14th-century cemetery of St. Mary Magdalene located between today’s Szewska and Łaciarska Streets, near the church under the same invocation[18]. Around 1320, a burial field was created south of the Corpus Christi church belonging to the Order of Saint John (currently Świdnicka Street) for the residents of the Holy Trinity Hospital run by the monks, among others. The necropolis operated until around 1540[19].

Near the northern section of Szewska Street, there were two burial fields the creation of which is be attributed to the Crusaders of the Red Star, who had monastery buildings and a hospital here. At the cemetery church of St. George founded by them in 1282 (the church of St. Agnes after the change of patron in 1350) there was a necropolis, the first mention of which dates back to 1345. Close by, near the southern façade of the 13th-century church of St. Matthias[20], over which the Crusaders held patronage, there was a small (surrounded by a wall) burial field for the flock of the parish of St. Matthias, which had jurisdiction over a part of Ołbin near Wrocław[21]. At the beginning of the 14th century, south of the later church of St. Stanislaus, St. Wenceslaus and St. Dorothea (in the area of today’s Świdnicka Street), a necropolis connected to the Augustinian Hermits monastery was established[22].

A 12th-century cemetery was located near the southern and northern façades of the Augustinian church of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Piasek Island[23]. Around 1385, a new parish necropolis was created next to the church of St. Anna, originally erected as a cemetery church (currently Św. Jadwigi Street). This necropolis survived until around 1816[24]. Nearby, at the church of St. James (church of St. Vincent since 1530), at today’s Biskupa Nankiera Square, there was an active cemetery probably established at the end of the 14th century[25]. From the 15th century, the area next to the church of St. Christopher (formerly of St. Mary of Egypt, near Św. Krzysztofa Square) – a branch chapel of the parish of St. Mary Magdalene – also served as a burial ground[26]. Established at that time could have been the necropolis operating next to the initially wooden, and from 1502 brick-and-mortar, church of St. Bernardino of Siena (the area near the northern façade of the church building, today’s Bernardyńska Street)[27].

The burials of the residents of Przedmieście Mikołajskie were carried out at the cemetery next to the church of St. Nicholas (the area of today’s Św. Mikołaja Square), which was opened around 1250 along with the creation of the local parish, which later became quite large[28]. The residents of Przedmieście Oławskie used, most likely from the second half of the 12th century, the necropolis located around the church of St. Maurice by today’s R. Traugutta Street (the 19th-century remains of the former cemetery have been preserved to this day)[29]. The same time frame can be ascribed to the burial ground for lepers, located not far from this church – by the church of St. Lazarus (currently R. Traugutta Street)[30].

From approximately the middle of the 12th century, the cemetery of the parish of St. Michael the Archangel in Ołbin[31] and the field established next to the church of All Saints built around the mid-13th century served as burial grounds for the villages located north of Wrocław (Przedmieście Odrzańskie)[32]. In 1400, another necropolis was opened in this area, located near the hospital chapel of Eleven Thousand Virgins, St. Bartholomew, St. Gregory the Great and St. Margaret (currently Ołbińska Street)[33]. The church buildings in Przedmieście Odrzańskie were demolished in 1529. After that, the sepulchral functions for the residents of this area were continued to be provided by the former burial ground of the parish of St. Michael the Archangel, next to which a wooden church under the same invocation was built in the 1530s. At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, it was replaced by a new half-timbered building[34]. The cemetery at the church of St. Michael the Archangel was open until 1870 (it occupied the area of today’s St. Edith Stein Park)[35]. From the middle of the 16th century, another burial place in Przedmieście Odrzańskie was the necropolis operating at the (rebuilt by that time) chapel of Eleven Thousand Virgins (the cemetery was closed in 1869)[36].

Victims of disasters, such as famines and epidemics of infectious diseases which decimated the residents of Wrocław, were buried in mass graves outside the city walls in locations selected by the city council. Burial fields organised on the initiative of municipal authorities, i.e. municipal cemeteries, were also established to bury the homeless and poor who died in the city, as well as those sentenced to death[37]. The oldest municipal facility intended for such burials was the cemetery of St. Gertrude (with a chapel under this invocation), which was built around 1318 in the area in front of Świdnicka Gate purchased by the city council (the area of today’s T. Kościuszki Square)[38].

Cemetery fields functioning around local churches were created from the 13th century also in settlements near Wrocław. Such was the nature of the necropolises in Muchobór Wielki (St. Michael the Archangel)[39], in Żerniki (St. Lawrence and St. Margaret)[40], in Leśnica (St. Hedwig)[41] and in Psie Pole, next to the church of St. James and St. Christopher[42]. Slightly newer cemeteries from the 16th century surrounded Protestant churches in Swojczyce (today the church of St. Hyacinth) and in Pracze Odrzańskie (after 1945 – the church of St. Anne), as well as the no longer existing Catholic (and Protestant for a period between the 16th-17th century) church of St. Andrew in Stabłowice[43].

During the Reformation (16th century), some of the previously Catholic cemeteries, along with the churches, were taken over by Prostestant parishes. During this and the next two centuries, no new Christian burial fields were created within the city. Necropolises, although in a small number, were being established outside the city walls. One of them was the Protestant cemetery opened in 1541, covering the area of today’s Czysty Square (closed in 1771). The Church of the Saviour built there in 1568, gave rise to one of the largest Lutheran parishes in Wrocław[44].

The flock of the cathedral parish of St. John the Baptist (perhaps also the dead who were denied religious services) were buried at the necropolis in Zatum (today the area of S. Wyszyńskiego and F. Joliot-Curie Streets)[45], consecrated in 1602, which served sepulchral functions for a relatively short time – until the beginning of the 18th century. Opened around 1690 was the cathedral cemetery of St. Lawrence (currently the area of Miła Street)[46]. In 1722, a wattle and daub cemetery church of St. Lawrence was built there, replaced in 1860 by a small Gothic-revival church building under the same invocation, which still exists today[47].

In 1715, the Catholic necropolis of the Corpus Christi parish was consecrated in Gaj near Wrocław (today’s eastern part of Kamienna Street)[48]. Around 1770, a cemetery of the Protestant parish of St. Bernardino was opened in Nowe Szczytniki (today the area of Grunwaldzki Square and the S. Wyspiański Coast)[49].

Also operating during the period discussed in this part of these deliberations were Jewish necropolises located in the immediate vicinity of Wrocław. The oldest burial ground of the Wrocław Jewish community was the cemetery located in Przedmieście Oławskie, in the area of today’s Z. Krasiński Street. It was established no later than at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. The Privilegium de Judaeis non tolerandis granted to Wrocław in 1455 by the Czech king, resulting in a ban on Jewish people settling in the city, contributed to the final liquidation of the necropolis[50]. In the mid-18th century, the Wrocław Jewish community was reborn, and in 1761 opened a cemetery near today’s Gwarna and Dworcowa Streets (it operated until 1856)[51].

From the mid-1770s, the main direction of the activities of the Wrocław authorities in the field of sepulchral issues was the creation of new municipal burial areas. These cemeteries were then leased to interested religious parishes. Necropolises were located outside the city walls, after carefully examining the suitability of the area for its future function. At the same time, the city authorities approved implementation projects for cemetery facilities, internal communication system, and greenery. Initiated in the 1770s was the creation of several necropolises located outside the Wrocław fortifications, right next to the fortification structures. These necropolises were called cemeteries at the bulwark (Glacisfriedhöfe). The first location decision of this type was issued in 1774 and concerned the creation of a new burial ground for the Protestant parish of St. Barbara in the area of today’s intersection of Braniborska and Sokolnicza Streets[52]. In 1777, as a result of the implementation of the provisions of the edict of December 1775, a necropolis was established (between the current Legnicka, Braniborska, Dobra and Trzemeska Streets) – later called the Great Cemetery, which until 1867 was the resting place of outstanding residents of Wrocław[53]. Cemeteries operated near the fortifications in Przedmieście Oławskie from 1777 (probably until the late 1860s), creating a compact burial area. This area, located south of today’s R. Traugutta Street – within the area demarcated by Z. Krasińskiego, Komuny Paryskiej and Podwale Streets – was occupied by the burial fields of the Protestant parishes of St. Bernardino, St. Christopher and the Saviour[54]. On the northern edge of the said necropolis complex, was the Old Military Cemetery, which survived until the 1820s[55]. In 1816, on the southernmost plot bordering the above-mentioned complex, a Catholic cemetery of the parish of St. Dorothea was established[56].


At the beginning of the 19th century, there was a common rule that the administration of religious cemeteries was the responsibility of parishes or religious communities. Since the introduction of the municipal ordinance in 1808, Protestant necropolises were supervised by the Municipal Protestant Consistory, which was an organisational unit of the city hall. In relation to other religions, the casting vote in many matters related to the organisation and subsequent use of the necropolis was in the hands of the Assembly of City Councillors (acting as the city council back then) and its executive body – i.e. Wrocław city hall.

The result of the ban on burials within the city, introduced in the mid-1770s, was the relatively quick liquidation of city centre necropolises (taking approximately until the end of the century). However, this process did not apply to the church cemeteries of St. Maurice, St. Nicholas, St. Michael the Archangel and of the Eleven Thousand Virgins (already mentioned earlier), associated with churches located outside the city walls. These cemeteries operated until the 1870s.

After the church necropolis was closed, the Catholic parish of St. Maurice used two burial fields located in the area of today’s Gen. W. Andersa Park (the older cemetery from 1863) and Skowroni Park (the new cemetery from 1887)[57]. This parish also managed the necropolises established between 1821-1840 in the villages near Wrocław: Brochów, Radwanice, Mokry Dwór and Opatowice. This group also included the cemetery in Księże Małe, consecrated in 1834, which was taken over by the parish of Mary Help of Christians established here in 1915[58].

The parish of St. Nicholas, covering the western suburbs of Wrocław, managed several necropolises, located mostly within this area. The oldest of them was the cemetery at today’s Bolkowska Street (from 1866) called Belvedere[59]. Another one was located in 1897 on the northern edge of today’s Zachodni Park at Pałucka Street[60]. From 1889, the necropolis at today’s Armii Krajowej Street was also used (the cemetery of St. Nicholas and Corpus Christi)[61]. Also under the management of the parish of St. Nicholas was (until 1907) the previously mentioned cemetery by the church of Saint Michael the Archangel in Muchobór Wielki.

In the 19th century, also other Wrocław Catholic parishes had their own, still functioning necropolises located outside the then urban area. The oldest of them were the already mentioned cathedral cemetery of St. Lawrence in Szczytniki (end of the 17th century) and the 18th-century cemetery of Corpus Christi by today’s Kamienna Street. New cemetery establishments created in the 19th century were associated with the parishes of: St. Matthias (from 1808, at today’s W. Cybulskiego Street)[62], St. Adalbert (created in 1836, at today’s S. Wyszyńskiego Street)[63] and the parish of St. Dorothea, which from 1861 had its own burial area at the border of today’s General W. Anders Park, near the intersection of Kamienna and Borowska Streets[64]. In the second half of the 19th century the parishes of St. Vincent (in 1866) and of the Blessed Virgin Mary (in 1872) created their necropolises in the area of today’s northern part of B. Prusa Street[65]. The second cemetery of St. Lawrence administered by the cathedral parish was consecrated in 1866 at the current O. Bujwida Street[66].

The local parish of St. Andrew had its own necropolis in Stabłowice (currently Przesiecka Street), probably since the 1880s[67]. The parish cemetery of St. James and Saint Christopher was opened in Psie Pole at that time (it is still operating at Gorlicka Street)[68]. There were also active necropolises by the Catholic churches of St. Hedwig in Leśnica and of St. Lawrence in Żerniki.

Wrocław monastic orders had their own burial plots. After closing the cemetery established around 1715 near the convent buildings[69] (currently K. Pułaskiego Street), the Wrocław Brothers Hospitallers established in 1809 a necropolis in the area of today’s Grabiszyński Park (near the intersection of today’s J. Hallera Avenue and Grabiszyńska Street)[70]. From 1852, the Sisters of Saint Elizabeth had a cemetery plot located at today’s Stacyjna Street[71]. After 1886, a monastic necropolis was created by the Wrocław Ursulines, located near the buildings erected by the congregation at what is now J. Kasprowicza Avenue. In 1904, in the vicinity of the monastery buildings (currently J. Kasprowicza Avenue), the Franciscans, brought at the end of the 19th century to Karłowice near Wrocław, opened their cemetery[72].

In the 19th century, the (then) suburban necropolises were managed also by Protestant parishes and communes. The necropolis opened in 1852 at today’s Krakowska Street was a burial ground jointly used by the parishes of the Saviour and of St. Christopher. This cemetery was liquidated in 1924[73]. In the immediate vicinity of the cemetery of the Saviour and St. Christopher, two large burial fields of the parish of St. Bernardino were created: in 1858 – the Old Cemetery of St. Bernardino (today’s Krakowska Street), and in 1892 a newer burial plot at today’s Biskupa Bogedaina Street (Tarnogajski Park)[74]. In the areas north of Wrocław, the sites where Lutherans were buried were the two cemeteries of the parish of the Eleven Thousand Virgins: the older one – opened in 1865 at today’s E. Zegadłowicza Street (active until 1881) and the newer one, dating back to 1895 – a large complex at today’s H. Kamieńskiego Street (Marii Dąbrowskiej Park)[75], where the last burial took place in 1944.

At the end of the 19th century, the issues related to the former cemetery sites or the location of new cemeteries became more important. The city authorities implemented a project for transforming closed necropolises into green areas[76] or re-developing active or newly created cemeteries into park-like establishments[77]. A large green area, with significant parts planned in the last decades of the 19th century in accordance with the above-mentioned concept, is today located within the location surrounded by Kamienna, Borowska, R. Weigla and Ślężna Streets. A visible remnant of this project, which currently does not fulfil sepulchral functions, is the Generała W. Andersa Park and the Skowroni Park. From the end of the 1860s, both Catholic (of St. Dorothea and of St. Maurice, as previously mentioned) and Protestant cemeteries were established in the area now covered by these park complexes[78]. The first non-Catholic necropolis in this area was the Old Cemetery of Mary Magdalene, created in 1868[79]. Bordering it from the south soon was the New Cemetery of Mary Magdalene opened in 1896[80], and slightly earlier – the Old Cemetery of the Saviour and St. John (in 1892). In 1899, the southernmost New Cemetery of the Saviour and St. John was established, together with the older structure creating a spacious burial field of over 10 ha[81]. Earlier, in 1862, in the western part of this necropolis complex (at today’s Ślężna Street) the Calvinist community created its second cemetery (the first Calvinist necropolis, opened in 1776, was located at today’s Rybacka Street)[82]. The Old Lutheran community also had its burial ground near this cemetery complex. From 1866 it was located by the eastern part of today’s Sztabowa Street[83].

In the towns (then) near Wrocław there were several cemetery fields administered by local Protestant communes. Two were located in Psie Pole (the older cemetery from 1793 and the newer one from the end of the 19th century)[84]. Others were established in Pracze Odrzańskie (in 1838, today’s Pracka Street), in Swojczyce (probably in the 1840s, today’s Chałupnicza Street) and in Leśnica (opened in 1883 at today’s Trzmielowicka Street). The cemetery in Stabłowice (today’s Tatrzańska Street), which was under the care of the Protestant parish from Pracze Odrzańskie, dates back to the beginning of the second half of the 19th century[85]. The commune necropolis of Protestants, residents of Dąbie, was established in 1872 in the area of today’s A. Kosiby Street[86].

In the 19th century, the system of municipal cemeteries was extended. The search for new solutions for establishing burial places intensified especially after the demolition of the city walls (this process took place in the years 1807-1836), when Wrocław was developing intensively, both in terms of urban planning and demographics[87]. During this period, commune necropolises were established in the satellite settlements surrounding Wrocław, which were also the resting place of Wrocław residents regardless of their religion. When subsequent towns near Wrocław were incorporated into the urban area, commune cemeteries received the status of municipal cemeteries and were then transferred (usually leased) to parishes or religious communities. The number of such burial fields was significant, although their average burial area was quite limited. In the second decade of the 19th century, commune necropolises were established in Gajowice (in 1815), in Gaj (in 1817) and in Glinianki (in 1818). The 1820s were a period of creating cemeteries in Muchobór Wielki (around 1821), in Osobowice at today’s Lipska Street (in 1826) and in Popowice (today’s Wejherowska Street). Chronologically later were the cemeteries established in Tarnogaj (in 1834) and – for the residents of Nowa Wieś – in the area of today’s Komandorska Street (1830s). In the first half of the 19th century, commune cemeteries were also created in Grabiszyn and Kozanów. The necropolises in Borek (founded in 1860) and Huby (established after 1861) date back to the 1860s. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, there were already active commune necropolises in Karłowice, Maślice, Pilczyce, Żerniki and Gądów Mały. The date of the establishment of the commune cemeteries in Kowale, Muchobór Mały, Poświatne and Różanka is not known, but it can be assumed that these necropolises date back to the 19th century[88].

The Jewish community, which was established around 1744 in Psie Pole near Wrocław, established its cemetery in 1811 (it existed at today’s Sycowska Street until 1945)[89]. Cemeteries were also created by the Wrocław commune. In 1856, after the closure of the older burial field by today’s Gwarna Street, a new necropolis – created at today’s Ślężna Street – was solemnly consecrated. It served sepulchral functions until 1942[90]. Another Jewish cemetery was established in 1902 at today’s Lotnicza Street[91].

The operation of the network of necropolises in satellite settlements did not solve Wrocław’s problem with ensuring an appropriate number of burial fields to meet the city’s needs. The first step to stabilising the problem of burials of residents of the capital of Lower Silesia was the opening in 1867 of two large municipal cemeteries available to all religions. They were located at the northern border of the city – in Osobowice[92], and in the south – in Grabiszyn[93]. The latter consisted of three parts, established separately as the needs emerged over time. In 1867, the oldest part, located east of today’s Grabiszyńska Street was opened (currently Grabiszyński Park). In 1881, on the opposite side of the route, the second part (the currently functioning municipal cemetery) was opened, and in 1916, the third part of the necropolis began to be used, located south of the current gar­den facilities. The opening of multi-hectare municipal burial fields resulted in the need to change the way urban cemeteries were being managed. This happened in 1879, when the 9th Office was established within the structure of Wrocław city hall, whose scope of responsibility included the issues related to churches, ownership of city land and cemeteries. In 1880, the affairs of the necropolises were entrusted to the Cemetery Deputation (Friedhofsdeputation), operating within the above-mentioned office.

The 19th-century Wrocław authorities were (like the then city council until about the mid-18th century) responsible for the burials of the poor and homeless, especially for solving the burial problem during cholera epidemics which hit the city several times in the 19th century. Epidemic cemeteries were established at some distance from city buildings, and for a long time these places were usually called “cholera cemeteries” (Cholerafriedhöfe). Sometimes, after many years of quarantine, cemetery functions were restored to such areas. Among those created in this way was the cemetery of the Free Religious Association[94] opened in 1845 at Bolesławiecka Street,  and the necropolis of the All Saints’ Hospital, opened in 1859 (near the northern part of today’s Trzebnicka Street)[95]. The above-mentioned cemeteries were created during the epidemic which hit Wrocław in 1831. In 1866, the area of the cemetery of St. Barbara (today’s Strzegomski Square), established before 1852, was used to bury the victims of a similar dramatic event. A similar fate befell the previously mentioned necropolis of St. Bernardino, operating since 1770 in Nowe Szczytniki (near today’s Grunwaldzki Square). Thus, both burial fields became Cholerafriedhӧfe[96] in 1866.

The responsibilities of the city authorities also included allocating land for establishing cemeteries for the large garrison stationed in Wrocław. From 1777, three burial fields were created for soldiers serving in Wrocław. Two of them – the previously mentioned Old Military Cemetery from 1777 and the necropolis established in 1814 located at the northern section of today’s Z. Krasińskiego Street – were located almost next to each other. The third garrison cemetery was opened in 1864 at what is now Wiśniowa Avenue[97]. In addition to those mentioned above, two more military burial places were established in the city: the French Cemetery[98] (today’s S. Wyszyńskiego Street), operating in 1806–1808 for the needs of the Napoleonic occupation garrison, and the mausoleum of Italian soldiers, opened in 1928 and still existing, located in the third part of the municipal cemetery in Grabiszyn[99].

In the 20th century, until 1945, in Wrocław (and the settlements gradually incorporated into the city at that time) five new burial fields of Christian parishes were established, including two Catholic ones: the cemetery of St. Henry at today’s Bardzka Street (in 1918)[100], the southern part of the New Cemetery of St. Maurice (today’s Działkowa Street, consecrated in 1940)[101], and three Protestant ones: Brochów cemetery in Księże Wielkie intended for the followers of this religion living in Brochów (in 1914, today’s Brochowska Street), as well as the cemetery of the parish of St. John at today’s Krzycka Street (in 1915) and the cemetery of the parish of Luther in Sępolno (in 1928)[102]. In 1902 at today’s Lotnicza Street, the previously mentioned third cemetery of the Wrocław Jewish community was opened. Most likely on the initiative of the city authorities (no precise data available), three necropolises were created at that time in the then satellite settlements of Wrocław, such as Pracze Odrzańskie (cemetery of the anti-tuberculosis centre, in 1901)[103], Gądów Mały (commune cemetery, in 1905)[104] and – at the beginning of the 20th century – in Kuźniki (New Cemetery of the Kuźniki Commune)[105].

However, the largest sepulchral project in this period was the construction of the municipal cemetery in Kozanów. Its first section located north of today’s Pilczycka Street, was opened in 1914. Pilczycka; later, in 1919, the second section located on the plot between today’s Pilczycka and Lotnicza[106] Streets (today the area of the Zachodni Park)[107] was opened.

It can be assumed that in the first half of the 20th century, a total of 11 new cemetery areas were established in Wrocław[108] (including the two of the municipal cemetery near Kozanów). However, most of the necropolises operating in the capital of Lower Silesia in the years 1900–1945 were from the nineteenth century or even older. Statistical data for Wrocław in 1926 show that there were 41 cemeteries in the city and its immediate vicinity, covering an area of approximately 237 ha. This number included 17 already closed necropolises with a total area of approximately 11 ha[109]. In 1933 (as of April 1), 77 burial areas were identified, and their total area reached over 259 ha[110]. The increase in the number of cemeteries and their total area was undoubtedly related to the incorporation of many suburban settlements into Wrocław in 1928.


The year 1945 is a clear turning point in the history of Wrocław cemeteries. A large number of necropolises were destroyed during the siege of Wrocław. However, it was the change of administration from German to Polish in late spring of 1945 which finally decided their future fate. The influx of Polish people changed the religious relations in the city, and after the displacement of the Germans, the Protestant cemeteries were abandoned. In 1945, the Polish administration took over a total of 70 cemeteries in Wrocław[111]. After 1950, 44 of these necropolises were considered closed or abandoned. In the years 1960–1963, 15 of these were liquidated. These necropolises were usually located in Wrocław city centre (like the Great Cemetery, considered a kind of historical relic) or near residential buildings. In the years 1964–1965, it was decided to re-develop the area of another 16 cemeteries, most of which were located on the outskirts of the city. Eleven remaining cemetery fields, located mainly in the area of today’s Gen. W. Andersa Park and Skowroni Park, and two others – the municipal cemetery in Kozanów and the burial field of the anti-tuberculosis centre in Pracze – were intended for liquidation in 1967. In 1970, a similar decision was made in relation to the former military cemetery located at the corner of Wiśniowa Avenue and Ślężna Street. This was the last officially adopted and implemented liquidation request regarding Wrocław cemeteries established before 1945[112].

Written by: Dr Marek Burak
Edited by: Kamilla Jasińska
Translated by: Fabryka Tłumaczeń

[1] The text is based on – sometimes verified – considerations presented in the work of M. Burak and H. Okólska on the history of Wrocław necropolises until 1945. Cf. M. Burak, H. Okólska, Dawne cmentarze Wrocławia, Wrocław 2007. The chronology of the creation of burial fields presented in this text (as well as in the above-mentioned book) was – to a large extent – based on the dating proposed in the work of L. Burgemeister and G. Grundmann, as well as in the research papers of H. Markgraf. Cf. L. Burgemeister, G. Grundmann, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Breslau, Bd. 3, Breslau 1934, pp. 216p220; see also H. Markgraf, Geschichte Breslaus in kürzer Übersicht, Breslau 1913; id., Die Straßen Breslaus nach ihrer Geschichte und ihren Namen, Breslau 1896. Whenever possible, attempts were made to include in the footnotes the latest research papers discussing a specific cemetery (these are usually works relating to the field of archaeology). In many cases, the key information about necropolises consists of a brief note contained in the monographs of parishes or churches, as well as plans of Wrocław, iconography and historical technical documentation. Therefore, the footnotes also include references to this type of material. However, no archival sources were cited. Information about a broader archival source base regarding specific necropolises (especially those established after 1800) can be found in the above-mentioned work by M. Burak and H. Okólska, to the relevant pages of which lead the annotations in the references.

[2] About the church organisation in the period from the 10th to the 14th century: R. Żerelik, Śląsk w monarchii piastowskiej, [in:] M. Czapliński, E. Kaszuba, G. Wąs, R. Żerelik, Historia Śląska, ed. by M. Czapliński, Wrocław 2002, pp. 41-42; M.L. Wójcik, Dolny Śląsk w latach 1138-1326, [in:] Dolny Śląsk. Monografia historyczna, ed. by W. Wrzesiński, Wrocław 2006, pp. 86-87.

[3] P. Wiszewski, Nowożytne dzieje chrześcijaństwa na Dolnym Śląsku (1526–1806), [in:] Dolny Śląsk. Monografia historyczna, ed. by W. Wrzesiński, Wrocław 2006, pp. 268-270.

[4] Cf. L. Ziątkowski, Życie religijne, [in:] C. Buśko, M. Goliński, M. Kaczmarek, L. Ziątkowski, Historia Wrocławia (tom I). Od pradziejów do końca czasów habsburskich, Wrocław 2001, pp. 266-267.

[5] Cf. W. Czapliński, A. Galos, W. Korta, Historia Niemiec, Wrocław 1981, pp. 285-286.

[6] G. Wąs, Śląsk we władaniu Habsburgów, [in:] M. Czapliński, E. Kaszuba, G. Wąs, R. Żerelik, Historia Śląska, ed. by M. Czapliński, Wrocław 2002, p. 162.

[7] Ibid., pp. 172-173.

[8] Circulare an sämtliche Breslauer Kammer- Departaments wegen Beerdigung der Leichen aller Religions- Verwandten außerhalb den Städten, [in:] Sammlung aller in den souvereinen Herzogtum Schlesien und demselben incorporierten Grafschatz Glatz in Financen, Ordnungen, Edicte, Breslau 1785, pp. 544-545.

[9] Cf. e.g. J. Kolbuszewski, Cmentarze, Wrocław 1996, p. 139 and ff.

[10] O różnych aspektach funkcjonowania cmentarzy w zamkniętej przestrzeni miejskiej cf. Z. Morawski, „Intra muros”. Zarys problematyki cmentarza miejskiego w średniowieczu, [in:] Czas, przestrzeń, praca w dawnych miastach. Studia ofiarowane Henrykowi Samsonowiczowi w sześćdziesiątą rocznicę urodzin, ed. by A. Wyrobisz, M. Tymowski, Warszawa 1991, pp. 93-99.

[11] H. Okólska, M. Smolak, D. Mrozowska, Mauzolea piastowskie na Śląsku, Wrocław 1993, pp. 74-85.

[12] P. Aries, Człowiek i śmierć, Warszawa 1992, pp. 62-63.

[13] M. Wojcieszak, Nekropole wrocławskiej katedry pw. Jana Chrzciciela. Nowożytny cmentarz na Zatumiu, [in:] Średniowieczne i nowożytne nekropole Wrocławia (cz. I), ed. by K. Wachowski, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2010, no. 12, p. 25.

[14] A. Pankiewicz, K. Marcinkiewicz, Cmentarz przy kościele św. Piotra i Pawła we Wrocławiu, [in:] Nowożytny cmentarz przy kościele św. Piotra i Pawła na Ostrowie Tumskim we Wrocławiu (lata 1621–1670), ed. by A. Pankiewicz, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2012, no. 17, pp. 19-21.

[15] M. Wojcieszak, K. Wachowski, Średniowieczne cmentarzysko przy kościele św. Wojciecha we Wrocławiu, [in:] Średniowieczne i nowożytne nekropole Wrocławia (cz. I), ed. by K. Wachowski, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2010, no. 12, p. 57 (topography), p. 66 (dating).

[16] M. Goliński, Socjotopografia późnośredniowiecznego Wrocławia (przestrzeń – podatnicy – rzemiosło), Wrocław 1997, pp. 185-186; L. Burgemeister, G. Grundmann, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Breslau, Bd. 2, Breslau 1933. p. 155 and ff. About the cemetery of St. Barbara in 1474 cf. Peter Eschenloer`s Stadtschreibers zu Breslau Geschichten der Stadt Breslau oder Denkwürdigkeiten seiner Zeit vom Jahre 1440 bis 1479, hrsg. von J.G. Kunisch, Breslau 1827-1828, Bd. 2, p. 310.

[17] M. Goliński, op. cit., p. 76; U. Bunzel, Entstehen und Vergehen der evangelischen Kirchen Breslaus, München 1964, pp. 30-31.

[18] M. Goliński, op. cit., 84-85 and 94.

[19] M. Roczek, J. Wojcieszak, M. Wójcik, Wyniki badań archeologicznych na cmentarzysku przy południowej ścianie kościoła pw. Bożego Ciała we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2006 (typescript, AKME Zdzisław Wiśniewski); A. Knoblich, Kurze Geschichte und Beschreibung der zerstörten St. Nikolaikirche vor Breslau nebst ihrer Filiale St. Michaelis in Groß-Mochbern und der mit ihnen vereinten St. Corporis Christi-Kirche in Breslau, Breslau 1862, p. 79.

[20] About the cemetery of St. Agnes and St. Matthias: cf. K. Wachowski, Cmentarz przy kościele klasztornym św. Macieja we Wrocławiu, [in:] Średniowieczne i nowożytne nekropole Wrocławia (cz. I), ed. by K. Wachowski, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2010, no. 12, pp. 165-169; cf. also H. Markgraf, Die St. Georgenkirche in Breslau, [in:] Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte Schlesiens und Breslaus, Breslau 1915, pp. 191-201; P. Dittrich, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Fürstentums Breslau. Die Kreuzherren in Fürstentum Breslau, „Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte und Alterthum Schlesiens“, Breslau 1911, t. 45, p. 207.

[21] M. Goliński, op. cit., p. 258; K. Engelbert, Geschichte der Pfarrei St. Michael in Breslau, Hildesheim 1949, pp. 31-32; M. Burak, T. Głowiński, Dzieje parafii św. Michała Archanioła na Ołbinie do 1945 r., [in:] Od benedyktynów i premonstratensów do salezjanów. Dzieje kościoła i parafii św. Michała Archanioła na wrocławskim Ołbinie, ed. by M. Wójcik, Wrocław 2018, p. 18-53.

[22] C. Reisch, Geschichte des Klosters und der Kirche St. Dorothea in Breslau, Breslau 1908, p. 11.

[23] H. Hoffmann, Sandstift und Pfarrkirche St. Maria in Breslau, Stuttgart 1971, p. 42.

[24] Ibid., p. 27; H. Hoffmann, Die Kirche St. Maria auf dem Sande zu Breslau, Breslau 1933, p. 53.

[25] L. Burgemeister, G. Grundmann, op. cit., Bd. 3, p. 25; M. Goliński, dz. cyt., s. 139.

[26] Ibid., p. 184-185; U. Bunzel, Entstehen…, p. 20. In 1474 the victims of the siege of Wrocław were buried at the cemetery of St. Christopher, cf. Peter Eschenloer`s Stadtschreibers…, op. cit., p. 310.

[27] A. Gola, M. Ławicka, Od klasztoru do Muzeum. Dzieje zespołu zabudowań bernardyńskich we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2009, pp. 44-45; L. Burgemeister, G. Grundmann, op. cit., Bd. 2, p. 199.

[28] A. Knoblich, op. cit., p. 25, 33; about the burials in 1474 at the church cemetery of St. Maurice and St. Nicholas cf. Peter Eschenloer`s Stadtschreibers…, op. cit., p. 310.

[29] Cf. M. Burak, Cmentarze parafii św. Maurycego, [in:] Dzieje parafii św. Maurycego na Przedmieściu Oławskim, ed. by R. Żerelik, Wrocław 2007, pp. 56-65.

[30] Alte Grabstätten in Breslau, „Schlesische Zeitung” 1941 (23 XI), No. 599, n.p.

[31] J. Piekalski, Wrocław średniowieczny. Studium kompleksu osadniczego na Ołbinie w VII–XIII w., Wrocław 1991, pp. 44 et seq.

[32] K. Engelbert, op. cit, p. 6.

[33] R. Späth, Die evangelische Pfarrkirche und das Hospital zu Elftausend Jungfrauen, Breslau 1900, pp. 2, 34.

[34] K. Engelbert, op. cit, p. 25.

[35] M. Burak, T. Głowiński, op. cit., p. 30.

[36] R. Späth, op. cit., p. 121.

[37] After carrying out a death sentence, no religious service was performed and the bodies were left covered with stones. A certain remainder of this custom was the funeral of the executed leaders of the rebellion against the Wrocław city council which started two years earlier, which took place in 1420 at the cemetery by the church of St. Elizabeth. They were buried under stone slabs with subsequent numbers carved on them, which were intended to emphasise the anonymity of the burial. The path created from them connected the south-eastern gate of the necropolis with the entrance to the southern nave of the church.

[38] D. Wojtucki, Pochówki skazańców i samobójców na wrocławskich cmentarzach od XVI do XVIII wieku, [in:] Średniowieczne i nowożytne nekropole Wrocławia (cz. I), ed. by K. Wachowski, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2010, no. 12, pp. 247-248.

[39] A. Knoblich, op. cit., p. 52.

[40] L. Burgemeister, G. Grundmann, op. cit., Bd. 3, pp. 183-186.

[41] Ibid., pp. 178-182.

[42] Cf. H. Hoffmann, Die Katholische Kirche in Breslau-Hundsfeld, Breslau 1938, p. 10. Even as late as in 1879, buried in the church cemetery was the parish-priest of Psie Pole, Rev. Anton Leuschner.

[43] H. Górska, Wrocławskie kościoły o drewnianej konstrukcji szkieletowej, [in:] Architektura Wrocławia (t. 3). Świątynia, ed. by J. Rozpędowski, Wrocław 1997, pp. 147-149.

[44] D. Wojtucki, Cmentarz i kościół Salwatora we Wrocławiu w świetle źródeł pisanych, [in:] Cmentarz Salwatora. Pierwsza nekropolia wrocławskich protestantów, ed. by K. Wachowski, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2015, no. 21, pp. 11-17.

[45] Cemetery discovered during the construction of the University Library building.

[46] Timeline of cathedral cemeteries according to the coherent concept of Magdalena Wojcieszak. Cf. M. Wojcieszak, Nekropole wrocławskiej katedry…, op. cit., pp. 22-25.

[47] P. Nowack, Das einweihte „Pantheon der Breslauer Dominsel”. Der alte Laurentiusfriedhof eins und jetzt, „Schlesische Volkszeitung” 1932 (6 VIII), No. 397; A. Zabłocka-Kos, Sztuka, wiara, uczucie. Alexis Langer – śląski architekt neogotyku, Wrocław 1996, pp. 238-239.

[48] A. Knoblich, op. cit., pp. 112-113.

[49] Building Archive of the City of Wrocław – branch of the Museum of Architecture (AB-MAWr), Site plan of the cemetery in Nowe Szczytniki from 1861, file ref. MAt-VI-9927, t. 499.

[50] M. Goliński, L. Ziątkowski, Średniowieczne cmentarze żydowskie we Wrocławiu, „Śląski Kwartalnik Historyczny Sobótka” 1989, yr. XLIV, no. 1, pp. 35-43; M. Wodziński, Średniowieczny cmentarz żydowski we Wrocławiu, „Śląski Kwartalnik Historyczny Sobótka” 1994, yr. XLIX, nos. 3-4, pp. 341-343; H. Markgraf, Der älteste Judenkirchhof in Breslau, [in:] Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte Schlesiens und Breslau, Breslau 1912, pp. 176-190.

[51] A. Grotte, Der Friedhof an der Claasenstraße in Breslau, [in:] Denkmalpflege und Heimatschutz, Berlin 1926, pp. 122-138.

[52] Friedhöfe haben ihre Geschichte, „Schlesische Zeitung“ 1935 (24 XI), No. 597; AB-MAWr, Design for a playground at the area of the former cemetery of St. Barbara from 1938, file ref. MAt-VI-9933, t. 501.

[53] H. Okólska, Wielki Cmentarz (Grosser Friedhof) przy ul. Legnickiej, „Rocznik Wrocławski” 2008, no. 8, pp. 53-70.

[54] AB-MAWr, Site plan of the cemetery complex in the vicinity of Z. Krasińskiego and Podwale Streets from around 1880, file ref. MAT-VI-9915, t. 496.

[55] Map of Wrocław by C.H. Studta from 1820, [in:] Atlas historyczny miast polskich, t. 4, vol. 1, ed. by M. Młynarska-Kaletynowa, Wrocław 2001; Friedhöfe haben ihre Geschichte, „Schlesische Zeitung“ 1935 (24 XI), No. 597.

[56] C. Reisch, op. cit., pp. 326-327.

[57] M. Burak, Cmentarze parafii św. Maurycego na Przedmieściu Świdnickim, [in:] Przedmieście Świdnickie we Wrocławiu, ed. by H. Okólska, H. Górska, Wrocław 2012, pp. 146-153

[58] Cf. M. Burak, Cmentarze parafii św. Maurycego…, pp. 66-67; A. Czmuchowski, L. Mucha, I. Szpruta, J. Pazdur, M. Rećko, Zarys dziejów parafii i kościoła pw. NMP Wspomożycielki Wiernych na Księżu Małym we Wrocławiu. W 100-lecie budowy księskiego kościoła, ed. by A. Czmuchowski, Wrocław 2013, p. 143. In 2010, there was a lexical change in the name of the saint patron of the church. Currently, the church and parish are under the invocation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Help of Christians.

[59] A. Trumpke, St. Rochus- Holzkirche in Breslau, „Ostdeutsche Bau- Zeitung” 1935, No. 3, pp. 17-20.

[60] AB-MAWr, Layout of the cemetary of St. Nicolas from 1897, file ref. MAt-AB-2364, doc. 8.3.97.

[61] K. Oniszczuk-Awiżeń, Cmentarz św. Mikołaja i Bożego Ciała, [in:] Dawne cmentarze Wrocławia, ed. by M. Burak, H. Okólska, „Wrocławski Przegląd Komunalny” 1997, no. 15, p. 9.

[62] Alte Grabstätten…, n.p.

[63] Der letzte Rest des Adalbert-Friedhofes, „Schlesische Zeitung” 1934 (10 V), No. 234.

[64] C. Reisch, op. cit, pp.334-335.

[65] AB-MAWr, Site plan of the cemetery of the parish of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Vincent from 1927, file ref. MAt-AB-2617, doc. P. 951.27.

[66] AB-MAWr, Site plan of the cemetery of St. Lawrence from 1866, file ref. MAt-AB-282, doc. 439/66.

[67] M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit, p. 27.

[68] AB-MAWr, Design of the chapel at the cemetery of St. James and St. Christopher from 1884, file ref. MAt-AB-1359, doc. 03/09/1984.

[69] Festschrift des Klosterhospitals der Barmherzigen Brüder in Breslau zur Zweijahrhundertfeier 1712 bis 1912, Breslau 1912, p. 54.

[70] Ibid., p. 64.

[71] M. Burak, Cmentarze wrocławskich elżbietanek, [in:] Dzieje parafii św. Elżbiety przy ul. Grabiszyńskiej we Wrocławiu, ed. by R. Żerelik, J. Maliniak, Wrocław 2008, pp. 171-172.

[72] Klasztor, kościół i parafia na Karłowicach, ed. by K. Dudek, Wrocław 1996, p. 15.

[73] M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 173-174.

[74] U. Bunzel, Entstehen…, p. 44.

[75] R. Späth, op. cit., pp. 121-122.

[76] E.g. the cemetery complex in Przedmieście Oławskie between Z. Krasińskiego and Podwale Streets was developed in this way.

[77] I. Bińkowska, Natura i miasto. Publiczna zieleń miejska we Wrocławiu od schyłku XIII do początku XX wieku, Wrocław 2006, p. 98.

[78] AB-MAWr, Map of Wrocław drawn up by Stadtvermessungsamt in 1934, file ref. Mat-VI-5591, t. 196.

[79] U. Bunzel, Führer durch die Haupt- und Pfarrkirche St. Maria Magdalena zu Breslau, Breslau 1937, p. 8; U. Bunzel, Entstehen…, p. 18.

[80] U. Bunzel, Führer…, p. 8. Cf. also U. Bunzel, Umbau der Kapelle auf dem neuen Magdalenenfriedhof, Breslau 1935.

[81] U. Bunzel, Entstehen…, p. 56.

[82] Cf. the information on the cemeteries of the Evangelical Reformed community provided in: M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 191-195.

[83] U. Bunzel, Entstehen…, p. 109.

[84] B. Krukiewicz, A. Pankiewicz, M. Paternoga, Starszy cmentarz parafii ewangelickiej na Psim Polu, [in:] Średniowieczne i nowożytne nekropole Wrocławia (cz. I), ed. by K. Wachowski, „Wratislavia Antiqua. Studia z dziejów Wrocławia” 2010, no. 12, pp. 184-189.

[85] Cf. M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 180-185.

[86] Ibid., pp. 150-151.

[87] While in 1810 Wrocław had 68,117 residents, in 1850 the number was 114,102, and in 1885 – 296,640. According to data from 1 December 1900, as many as 422,415 people lived in the capital of Lower Silesia. Cf. Statistische Daten über die Stadt Breslau, Breslau 1901, p. 5.

[88] More information about commune cemeteries in settlements around Wrocław can be found in: M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 213-269.

[89] L. Ziątkowski, Cmentarze żydowskie, [in:] Dawne cmentarze Wrocławia, ed. by M. Burak, H. Okólska, „Wrocławski Przegląd Komunalny” 1997, no. 15, p. 70.

[90] E.g. M. Łagiewski, Stary Cmentarz Żydowski we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 1995.

[91] L. Ziątkowski, Powstanie cmentarza żydowskiego przy ulicy Lotniczej we Wrocławiu, „Śląski Kwartalnik Historyczny Sobótka” 1997, yr. LII, no. 1-2, pp. 1-13.

[92] D. Eysymontt, Cmentarz komunalny na Grabiszynie, [in:] Dawne cmentarze Wrocławia, ed. by M. Burak, H. Okólska, „Wrocławski Przegląd Komunalny” 1997, no. 15, pp. 60-63.

[93] D. Eysymontt, Cmentarz komunalny na Osobowicach, [in:] Dawne cmentarze Wrocławia, ed. by M. Burak, H. Okólska, „Wrocławski Przegląd Komunalny” 1997, no. 15, pp. 63-66.

[94] AB-MAWr, Plan of the cemetery of the Free Religious Association at Bunzlauerstraße (Bolesławiecka) from 1930, file ref. MAt-VI-9941, t. 505.

[95] AB-MAWr, Site plan of the All Saints’ Hospital cemetery from 1873, file ref. Mat-VI-27289, t. 1237.

[96] Cf. M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 123–124 (cemetery of St. Barbara), pp. 127-128 (cemetery of St. Bernardino). In 1896, the church of Luther was consecrated, ­built on the site of the former cemetery of St. Bernardino. In 1913, the construction of the church of St. Paul was completed in the area of the former necropolis of St. Barbara. Neither of the Protestant churches survived the siege of Wrocław in 1945.

[97] Cf. Cmentarze wojskowe, [in:] M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 271-279.

[98] Friedhöfe haben ihre Geschichte, „Schlesische Zeitung“ 1935 (24 XI), No. 597.

[99] Cf. Z. Antkowiak, Krzyże synów Italii, „Kalendarz Wrocławski”, 1986, pp. 301-305.

[100] D. Eysymontt, Cmentarz św. Henryka, [in:] Dawne cmentarze Wrocławia, ed. by M. Burak, H. Okólska, „Wrocławski Przegląd Komunalny” 1997, no. 15, p. 22.

[101] M. Burak, Cmentarze parafii św. Maurycego na Przedmieściu Świdnickim…, pp. 150-153.

[102] Cf. M. Burak, H. Okólska, op. cit., pp. 150-151 (of Luther), p. 177 (of St. John), p. 259 (Brochów).

[103] AB-MAWr, Design of the outbuilding on the premises of the anti-tuberculosis centre together with the site plan from 1912, file ref. MAt-AB-60742, t. 1808.

[104] AB-MAWr, Design of the chapel at the commune cemetery in Gądów Mały together with the site plan from 1905, file ref. MAt-AB-3975, doc. 14.405.

[105] AB-MAWr, Design of the chapel at the commune cemetery in Kuźniki together with the site plan from 1924, file ref. MAt-AB-3975, doc. 15/09/2024.

[106] E.g. Der Gemeindefriedhof bei Cosel, „Schlesische Zeitung” 1903 (6 VI), No. 388; Die Breslauer Kommunalfriedhӧfe, „Schlesische Zeitung” 1926 (25 VII), No. 346.

[107] Zachodni Park is also an example of a planned park and forest complex, combining both sepulchral and recreational functions. Cf. I. Bińkowska, op. cit., p. 103.

[108] In 1928, the above-mentioned satellite settlements were incorporated into Wrocław.

[109] Kleines statistisches Taschenbuch für die Stadt Breslau, Breslau 1926, p. 25.

[110] Kleines statistisches Taschenbuch für die Stadt Breslau, Breslau 1933, p. 38.

[111] According to the information from the justification of the resolution of the Presidium of the National Council of the city of Wrocław of 2 December 1963. Cf. the State Archive in Wrocław (hereinafter: APWr), Presidium of the National Council of the city of Wrocław, file ref. 478, p. 2899.

[112] The liquidation process was initiated on the basis of the following resolutions of the Presidium of the National Council of the city of Wrocław: no. 200/57 of 29 VII 1957, no. 296/58 of 1 XII 1958; no. 16/60 of 2 II 1960; no. 166/61 of 5 VI 1961; no. 267/63 of 2 XII 1963; no. 435/67 of 10 IV 1967 and no. 17/130/70 of 9 II 1970. Text of the resolutions: APWr, Presidium of the National Council of the city of Wrocław, file ref. 416 (1957), 422 (1958), 432 (1960), 448 (1961), 478 (1963), 518 (1967), 553 (1970).